WATER SALINIZATION IN IRAQ AND SOME SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS
Journal: Water Conservation and Management (WCM)
Author: Ahmed A.N.A, Ahmed, Rama T. Rashad
Print ISSN : 2523-5664
Online ISSN : 2523-5672
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
The salinity status in the Iraq needs a continuous assessment because it is continuously changing due to many factors. This article highlights the problem in the country and aims to assess the increasing salinization of some water resources. It suggests some recommendations for optimizing the beneficial utilization of this phenomenon. Experimentally, water samples were collected from 1242 site in the Iraq country and chemically analyzed to estimate the salinity parameters and indices for the agricultural suitability including the sodium percentage (Na%), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and the permeability index (PI). The analysis results have indicated wide variations in the pH, EC, TDS and types of soluble ions for the estimated resources. The general trend of TDS and EC as parameters of water salinization for some governorates may indicate the presence of some organic contaminants. The TDS approximately equalled the EC in Karbala, Ninewa and Thi-Qar. The sequence of the predominating ions was Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ and NO3‒a> SO42‒ > Cl‒ > HCO3‒, respectively for the governorates Anbar, Babylon, Baghdad, and Basrah. The predominance of some types of cations and/or anions may be related to environmental, geological, and human practices factors. Many samples can be suitable for irrigation and agricultural use with good Na% (20-40%), acceptable Mg% (<50%), excellent SAR (<10), and PI class 2 and 3. Despite the severity of the problem, suitable management can use the saline water resources for sustainable development to turn the disadvantages into advantages. Suggested Solutions are presented for the agricultural sustainability including the irrigation and fertilization management, planting trees in the right location, biotechnology, and genetic engineering. Examples for the desalination technologies are discussed such as the Bio-Electro-remediation and Reverse electro-dialysis (RED) as an energy-efficient water desalination using Capacitive Deionization (CDI) technique and freeze desalination.